The Good, The Bad of the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load: A Beginner’s Guide 

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Managing diabetes can be a challenging task, especially if you’re just starting to learn about it. Two concepts you will encounter on your journey to blood sugar control are the Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL).

These tools can help you make carb choices to avoid high blood sugar spikes. In this article, we’ll break down what these terms mean, compare their pros and cons, and discuss how to use them in your diabetes management plan.

What is the Glycemic Index (GI)?

Hence, the Glycemic Index (GI) is a scale that measures how quickly carbohydrates in foods raise your blood sugar levels. Carbohydrate-containing foods are assigned a number that range from 0 to 100. With glucose at the top of the scale with a GI score of 100 (1).

– Low GI (0-55): Foods with a low GI are digested and absorbed slowly, which should result in a gradual rise in blood sugar levels. These foods are considered better choices for people with diabetes because they can be helpful to maintain more steady blood sugar levels.

Medium GI (56-69): Foods with a medium GI cause a moderate increase in blood sugar levels and should be consumed in moderation.

– High GI (70-100): High GI foods can cause a more rapid spike in blood sugar levels and should be limited.

What is the Glycemic Load (GL)?

Well on the other hand, the glycemic Load (GL) takes the glycemic index (GI) a step further. It considers both the quality and quantity of carbohydrates in a serving of food. GL can tell you how a specific amount of a particular food will affect your blood sugar. It’s calculated using this formula:

GL = (GI of food x grams of carbohydrates in a serving) / 100

Low GL (0-10): Foods with a low GL have a minimal impact on blood sugar and are generally safer for people with diabetes.

Medium GL (11-19): Foods with a medium GL should be consumed in moderate amounts.

High GL (20+): High GL foods cause higher spikes in blood sugar levels and should be limited or avoided.

However, both tools may not be perfect but can be helpful. Here are the pros and cons of each.  

Pros and Cons of Glycemic Index (GI):


1. Easy to understand: The GI is straightforward to understand, it can be a valuable tool for beginners. Knowing the GI of foods can guide you toward making healthier choices, such as selecting whole grains over refined grains.

2. Promotes stable blood sugar: Low-GI foods can help maintain steady blood sugar levels, reducing the risk of sudden spikes and crashes.


1. Limited context: GI values can vary based on factors like food ripeness, cooking methods, other macros eaten in combination with carbs and individual responses, which can make it less precise.

2. Doesn’t consider portion size: GI doesn’t account for the amount of carbohydrates in a serving, which is important for blood sugar management.

Pros and Cons of Glycemic Load (GL):


1. Takes into consideration portion size: GL provides a more accurate picture of how a specific serving of food will affect your blood sugar.

2. Combines quality and quantity: GL takes both the type and amount of carbohydrates into account, offering a more comprehensive view.


1. Complex calculation: Calculating GL for every meal can be time-consuming and may not be practical for everyone. You have to know how to count carbs and portion sizes. 

2. Not always available: GI values are more readily available than GL values for most foods, making it harder to use GL consistently. 

Portion Size and the Type of Carbohydrate Matters 

Furthermore, it’s important to understand that comparing the glycemic index of foods like rice and watermelon isn’t always straightforward. One key reason for this difference is that the glycemic index measures the carbs in grams and not actual portion size. 

Take watermelon, for instance, it ranks higher in the glycemic index compared to rice but it is not a fair comparison for the typical serving size of these foods.

For example, 50 grams of rice is about 1 cup being compared to 50 grams of watermelon, which is about 3 cups, on the GI scale.  In reality if you eat 1 cup of rice it will have a much higher blood sugar affect versus 1 cup of watermelon.

Therefore, the glycemic load (GL) factors in both the glycemic index (GI) and portion size and can provide a more accurate assessment of a food’s impact on blood sugar.

In order to make a fair comparison, it’s best to evaluate the glycemic index of foods within their respective categories, such as comparing fruits to fruits and grains to grains.  

For instance, in the image provided, when comparing the GI and GL to determine which fruit is more blood sugar friendly, picking mango over watermelon would be the more favorable choice.

How to Use GI and GL in Diabetes Management:

1. Familiarize yourself with the GI and GL values of common foods: check out the resources section of my blog to find the GI and GL database link for an easy way to lookup foods. 

2. Combine GI and GL: While GI can guide you toward making better choices, GL helps you plan meals that consider portion sizes and carbohydrate content. Aim for a balanced combination of both concepts.

3. Monitor your blood sugar: Regularly check your blood sugar levels before and after meals to see how different foods affect you personally. This will help you fine-tune your diet.

4. Consult a healthcare professional: Work with a Registered Dietitian or healthcare provider to create a personalized diabetes management plan that incorporates GI and GL into your daily routine.

Summing it up for GI and GL

Understanding the glycemic index and glycemic load can be helpful tools in managing diabetes. These tools empower you to make informed choices about the foods you eat that can help promote stable blood sugar levels.

Remember that while GI and GL can be valuable, they are just two tools for diabetes management, and it’s important to consider other factors like portion sizes, individual responses, food combinations, and overall diet quality.

Always consult with a healthcare professional to develop a comprehensive plan tailored to your specific needs and goals.  

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